The essence of all industrial revolutions is the invention of super-innovative and significant discoveries and technologies. This pushes the economy and helps for the improvement of many other aspects of people’s lives. So far, humanity has gone through four industrial revolutions, but Industry 5.0 is appearing on the horizon.
The first industrial revolution was the process of industrialization that began in Britain in the second half of the 18th century and then spread to the rest of Europe and the United States. As a result, the country’s economy stopped relying on agriculture and animal husbandry and began to focus on industrial activities.
The second industrial revolution covers the period from the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century and is the time of the transformation of world industry. It is believed that it began with the commissioning of the first technological process for the mass production of cheap steel. The highlight of this period was the widespread use of conveyor lines and the entry of mass production.
Other significant achievements of this period are the radio, the telephone, the television, the telegraph.
The second technological revolution was based on serious scientific achievements and rapidly spread to Western Europe, the United States, Russia, and Japan.
Since the beginning of the 50s of the 20th century, humanity has entered a new stage of its development. The third (digital) revolution is underway. The engine of all ongoing changes in the new information technologies.
Mechanical and analog technology has been replaced by digital electronics. The ongoing transformations are characterized by special dynamics and complexity. Achievements of the new era are computers, the global Internet, HD TV, smartphones, tablets, industrial robots, thus eliminating many spatial and temporal constraints. Without the information revolution, globalization and outsourcing would not be possible.
Today we are living with the fourth industrial revolution. Key to it are the achievements in the field of robotics and artificial intelligence. A typical trend is an introduction of cloud-based technologies (Cloud Computing), cyber-physical systems, computer networks with electronic devices for interaction with each other and with the external environment (The Internet of Things). Modularly structured cyber-physical systems monitor processes, create virtual copies of the physical world, communicate and collaborate and with people in real-time.
The era of Industry 4.0 was and still is revolutionary, but on the horizon is the return of the human element in the production process, the collaboration between robot and man that outlines Industry 5.0.
Although Industry 4.0 still in its development stage the new paradigm Industry 5.0 can already be seen. It includes the penetration of Artificial Intelligence into human daily life, cooperation to strengthen human capacity, and the return of man to the “Center of the Universe”. In this sense, probably the more accurate term instead of “Industry5.0” is “Society5.0” (Super Intelligent Society). Unlike the concept of Industry 4.0, Society 5.0 is not limited to the manufacturing sector but solves social problems through the integration of physical and virtual spaces. Society 5.0 is a society where modern ICT, the Internet of Things, robots, artificial intelligence, and 3D printing are actively used in everyday life, in industry, in healthcare, and all public spheres for the benefit and convenience of society.
Although automated processes and robots are increasingly used in human life, the need for human contribution is again at the forefront as an essential element of the process, especially in its creative part. Because history proves that one cannot continue its evolution and revolution without the other.